Probably, the most asked question, to beekeepers is, ‘ How is honey made? ‘ It is, actually, a very involved process between flower and bee. Once you understand this process, you really do appreciate what a miracle bees, honey and pollination are.

Honey is a natural product made from plant nectar by honey bees. The flavor and odor of honey is derived from the plant pigments and other materials in the nectar. Honey from each floral source is unique just as the flowers themselves.


All nectar contains microscopic yeast cells. These are specialized yeast that can grow in rich sugar solutions containing 30 – 80 % sugar. These yeast cells may cause fermentation of diluted honey (green) but they are inactive in normal (ripened) honey containing less than 19% water. It is important that the bees ripen honey as quickly as possible in order to prevent this fermentation.

Honeycomb in closeup

In most nectars, the predominate sugar is sucrose. The other major component is water. The nectar is manipulated by the honey bee in many ways. The nectar undergoes 2 chemical changes induced by natural enzymes secreted by the honey bee into the nectar from glands in their bodies. There is also 1 physical change that occurs, again, by the bee.

To read the full article, see the sweet making of honey.





Though the thermometer was at -25 yesterday, it was a good day to clean out the water access only wood duck boxes. We have to wait for the lake to freeze to get to the boxes. It is always a surprise when cleaning and resetting the boxes for spring occupation, what you will find.


Not all stories are happy. This unfortunate wood duck egg never quite hatched.




We found some mice in fluffy wood rush nests and some even stranger occupants.


A common grackle had built this huge twig nest and left 1 unhatched egg behind.


According to Bird Studies Canada, the Christmas bird count started in 1900. This makes the count the longest running Citizen Science project. In Canada, approximately 14,000 birders count over 3 million birds from December 14 to January 5. Data is collected by Birds Studies Canada to help create strategies to protect birds and their habitats. In conjunction with Audubon, a ‘Birds and Climate Change Report’ has evolved highlighting dangerous bird population trends and the need for conservation action.


It is easy to participate. Simply contact Bird Studies Canada to find a count near you. Counts may be done from the warmth of your home while watching bird feeders or hiking in the crisp winter weather observing fields for bird activity. Don’t forget to take photos and submit them to the Christmas Bird Count photo contest.

I’ll be donning on my favorite warm socks and traveling the trails.  My assistant, Runabout, will keep me company on our walks. It is a great way to enjoy the Christmas season.


Wow, what a seed collection year it has been! Species of trees such as beech, black maple, ironwood and musclewood that create seeds every 5 to 7 years decided that this was their year. Giant seed crops for some species but the wetter weather was not favorable for some species, such as oak. But, it is time to celebrate with the last species being collected this week – the red cedar.

Common names can be so confusing and it is no different for this tree. Commonly known as red cedar, it is not actually a cedar but a juniper. 2 types of juniper grow in this region but the Juniperis virginiana is the juniper we collected.

The beautiful blue berries are not actually berries but scales tightly packed. Reference books actually refer to the fruit as cones, not berries. The cedar waxwing bird, named after this tree, do not really care. For these winter residents the tree is essential as a food source through the long winter months.


Trees and plants communicate to each other, and their community, above and below the ground. Above soil level, when trees are being attacked (stressed) they release volatile organic chemicals (VOC). These VOC are picked up by neighboring plants and forewarn them to defend themselves. These same chemicals can also attract help in the form of predators to feed on the attacking pests. Each chemical is a ‘word’ and these words are combined to make a specific sentence – this allows plants to chatter. A well known VOC is the aroma generated by freshly cut grass.

Below the ground, when trees are attacked they increase their defense against the invaders by revving up their defensive genes and increase their production of defense enzymes. They send these chemical signals down their roots to the mycorrhiza network, where neighboring trees detect these signals and trigger their own defense mechanisms. This can happen in as little as 6 hours.

Turns out, trees can’t live without their mycorrhiza. Under a simple footstep there are 300 miles of fungal highway. This connectivity is not just between same species but between all species and works like our internet. This forest connectivity is vast and is world wide. But why have this co operative between tree and fungus? It is quite simple; the fungus can’t photosynthesize but can pick up nutrients, especially Nitrogen and Phosphorus, and exchange these nutrients with the plants for their photosynthetic product of sugar.

The biggest users of the fungal network are the Hub trees. These are the mother trees which are nurturing the young in the understory. The hub trees send extra Carbon to the shaded understory young trees. In this way, the survival rate of the saplings increases 4X. It has been discovered that hub trees have kin identification capability where they can distinguish the difference between strange and kin trees. Mother trees have bigger mycorrhiza nodes and networks with related trees vs. strange trees. When a mother tree is injured or dying it will pour out excess Carbon into the fungal network but also defense signals.

So the next time you take a walk out into the woods – see the trees for the interwoven community that they are.



One of my anticipated events in June is the nightly, blinking light show of the fireflies. This year did not seem as spectacular as other years and it lead me to wonder.   Had the wet and cold spring adversely affected the firefly? It turns out to be a more complicated issue than just adverse weather conditions. As far back as 2010, scientists from around the world knew our beloved firefly was in trouble. During the International Firefly Symposium, 13 nations documented noticeable population declines and declared an urgent need for conservation of their habitats. Just conserving habitat is not enough.

So how can we help this amazing beetle? Here are some recommendations you can implement in your own backyard.


Fireflies communicate through their flashing lights and especially to attract mates. Human light pollution disrupts their flashes making it harder to find mates and breed. Even drawing blinds at night for inside lights will help dim your surrounding outside yard.


Have logs and leaf litter handy. Some species of fireflies grow in rotten logs and leaf litter. Create water features. Most species of fireflies thrive around standing water and marshy areas. Ponds, streams and rivers can also provide good habitat. Even a small ground depression full of water can cause them to congregate. Fireflies eat the smaller insects, grubs and snail that live near these water landscapes.


Fireflies and their larva may come into contact with other pests that have been poisoned, or they may ingest poisons from plants that have been sprayed. Remember – firefly larva eat other undesirable insects, so they are nature’s natural pest control.



Fireflies mainly stay on the ground during the day, and frequently mowing may disturb populations. Consider incorporating some areas of long grasses in your landscape. Fireflies prefer to live in long grasses.

Some very simple changes to your gardening and landscape can be of great importance to this beetle. I’m hoping we will all try these recommendations so that we can continue to witness the amazing firefly display on a summer’s night.





Today was the day we found the beautiful Hillborn White Oak of Cambridge.  Seed collecting has been ongoing with it being a, ‘ bust or boom ‘ year for trees and shrubs.  Unfortunately, it is more of a bust year for oaks, in general.  The odd oak is producing acorns, but at minimal amounts.


Last year, in May 2016, we talked about a very special tree on site. Our American Beech tree had been recognized and protected by Trees Ontario as a Heritage Tree. It stands by the House of Dove as it has stood for the last 100 years. Trees of this age have unique genetics in that their longevity shows a resistance to disease, climate change, pollution and have grit to survive whatever Mother Nature dishes out.


We have waited 7 years for this tree to produce fruit and, finally, this is the year. After every wind or rain event I visit the tree and collect the seeds laying about on the ground and fight off the squirrels and chipmunks trying to collect seed for their winter stashes. We want to collect as many seeds as possible since, it seems, that we can only harvest every 7 years. Soon the seeds will be processed and next year a new wave of American Beech will germinate carrying the genetics of this beautiful heritage tree forward. Something worth celebrating.


This is the best year, so far, for having orioles come to the feeders. We estimate we have 30 – 40 northern orioles coming to feed on the grape jelly, daily, at the five feeders. We wanted to share some photos of the orioles gaping our trumpet vine.

You have to realize, northern orioles are regular consumers of nectar. In this area, they love trumpet vine. They do not feed like the hummingbirds but, rather, by gaping. They pierce the bottom of the flower and pry open the gap and rob the nectar from the flower. Unfortunately, the flower does not get pollinated since the orioles bypass the sexual parts.


Sometimes female butterflies find the ‘ perfect ‘ site on which to lay their precious eggs. She is quite capable of depositing 100 eggs. This can be quite overwhelming for the host plant and in order to avoid starvation of all the caterpillars, transplanting of the eggs is required.

We simply pin the leaves on which the eggs are on to a new area. Pinning causes little damage to the host plant and the eggs continue to develop, uninterrupted, on the underside of the plant away from the rain and eyes of predators.

These are spicebush swallowtail eggs and caterpillars being transferred to fresh spicebush host plants.