It is never just about finding ancient trees and collecting seed to preserve their genetics for generations to come.  There is so much more – the human connection.  Inevitably, when you find the ancient tree, there is a human guardian connected to it.

So is the case of the St Cuthberts white oak.  The Lea family, back in 1818, was one of the founding families for the Leaside area.  By 1890, the Lea’s donated land for construction of a church.  There was no steeple built.  The white oak that was present during construction acted as the focal point of the church.  Today, to find the church just look to the sky and the giant white oak guides the way.

We were honored to meet the church representatives and tree enthusiasts last week on our quest to find this tree.  Thanks to the tree guardians, this tree has received Heritage status and still graces the side of the church.  Unfortunately, this great white oak is just a remnant of the old growth forest that once covered this terrain.

We are hoping that next year will not be a drought year and we will be back visiting the St Cuthberts white oak on a quest to retrieve acorns.



Height 213 m

Circumference 518 cm

Age approximately 400 years old



This 400 year old tree in Niagara is the official boundary marker in the first land deed in Upper Canada signed in 1781 between the Chippawas and the Mississauga and the English Crown. The deed, signed by King George, was for a 4 mile wide strip of land bounded by the Niagara River between Lakes Ontario and Erie. To mark the boundary, the 4 First Nations chiefs chose a large, white oak, forked 5 feet from the ground near Lake Ontario at a distance of 4 miles from the west bank of the Niagara River.



This is a designated Ontario heritage tree.



We were very happy to track down the location of this magnificent tree with the help of Forests Ontario.  The 2 men responsible for getting this tree designated as an Ontario heritage tree are seen in this photo.  Unexpectedly, it turned out to be a mast year for this old tree and we managed to collected 200 germinated acorns.

This trees’ legacy will live on!




We have been very busy scoping out the Lake Erie shoreline looking for southern seed sources.  With the launching of our assisted tree migration program we needed southern seed sources to bring northward so that we might be able to offer mixed  provenances.

We have been blessed this year to see many new places in Ontario as we go exploring.  What a great job.  I really can’t consider this work when we get to travel to so many beautiful and fascinating places and meet great people.


I think the only red oaks that produced any meaningful amounts of acorns was at Crystal beach.   Wow – these oaks were already present when the lake shore cabins were built around 1904.  What an incredible view as these red oaks arch over the roadway and extend to Lake Erie.  So glad work took us there!




This weekend we went on a historic walk.  We went to the historic village of Swansea which is more than 300 years old.  This village was completely surrounded by the city of Toronto, and by 1967, had been amalgamated.

As far back as 1615, indigenous peoples and settlers have been using this area for travel.  Etienne Brule, walked the Toronto Carrying Trail and stayed at the native encampments at the Humber River.  By 1793, this area was declared a mill reserve so that the forests could remain intact for the use of the King’s sawmills.  This area was unused and eventually was turned into parks and house lots.

It was this rich historic area that we explored in hopes of finding some of the ancient white, red and black oaks.  It took a bit of sleuthing since it is old residential area with many of these ancient trees residing in backyards and private property.

So much fun – we will be back to investigate again!


So many people ask what is the best to plant for pollinators to feast upon.  I base my recommendations on published bee appeal values posted by universities.  I only selected plants that rated very good or excellent for bee appeal.  Also, we only selected native species since these species have developed special bonds with our pollinators.

Here is the listing.







Canada and American Plum


Ohio Buckeye

Eastern Redbud

Northern Catalpa



Indigo bush





Eastern flowering dogwood




Honey locust




We have done a great deal of research to try and get the principles of assisted migration correct. Luckily, we were able to contact some of the authors of the research papers we used. Generally, they all agreed we had the right data. Some were glad to see their research being implemented and some were much more cautious.

We wanted input from the MNRF about our program. In a nut shell, the MNRF is focusing on updating the seed zones and in the future they may be able to deal more directly with assisted migration.

For us, Phase 1, has been to get articles and information available and getting a conversation going. We need to have all industry and government talking. And we need to keep talking. This is not an easily resolved issue nor is it a static program. As climate changes we must reevaluate our targets and watch how our transplanted forests respond.

We will be starting Phase II, this spring, where we will vastly expand our seed collection sites. We need to start growing more southerly originated stock in order to start blending provenances.

We have also created genetic maps for our clients to keep track of seed sources used. In every planting we want to create the broadest genetic base possible. Irregardless of assisted migration, the key to any resilient forest or small planting is genetic diversity.

We will gladly dialogue with all interested parties and government and update our program accordingly.

This is just the beginning…we are going to have so much fun!



In Ontario, there are 35 static seed zones. These were established to ensure that planting stock was climatically adapted to the region of planting. This supported the approach of ‘ local is best ‘ where locally adapted seeds would be more acclimatized to the site. Recommended distances were no more than 50 kilometers from the parent stand and, if possible, less than 30 kilometers.

What is strikingly clear is that static provenances are no longer valid with a changing climate. Climatic envelopes, areas of suitable climatic habitat for tree species, are shifting north. This change will be ongoing and unrelenting. It is this unrelenting change that has us paralyzed.

So what are some issues concerning assisted migration? It is the intent of assisted migration to push seed provenances north or even introduce new species north and accomplish climatic adaptation in 1 generation in what would have taken nature several generations to achieve. One of the biggest risks of planting stock north of its current zone, is freezing damage. Natural selection has resulted in species aligning their growing cycles to avoid damage from late spring and early fall frosts. Events such as breaking dormancy, bud burst and flowering are carefully timed for tree species adapted to a local environment.

On an even larger scale, we could be mismatching tree species to photo period. By moving seed sources north, species are no longer matched to local day length. Longer photo periods experienced at more northerly latitudes may cause trees to be more susceptible to all frosts. By mid century, it is estimated that most of Ontario’s tree species will have to move 400 to 600 kilometers north to keep withing their climatic envelopes. This will, indeed, cause mismatching of tree species to photo period.

We have decided, at Puslinch Naturally Native Trees nursery, to take the plunge. We will be launching an assisted migration program. A huge undertaking but we have always been committed to a sustainable environment and forests. Now the hard work begins where we build the program and try to introduce it to our clients and general public.



People usually do not think of trees being able to migrate. But this is untrue. If you just think back 12,000 years ago, trees migrated just ahead of the crushing forces of advancing glaciers in Canada. Trees would sexually mature, send out seed and pollen ahead of the glaciers and create an advancing line of trees, moving southward. As a matter of fact, DNA testing found that some white pine tested in the Mississippi valley had come from the Algonquin park area. Of course, migrating birds and wildlife help move seeds of trees by ingesting seeds and later fertilizing another area with droppings. The native people of various regions would plant favored shrubs and trees, such as yellow wood, on their travels. In this way, they were always assured of having this plant material available.

So what I have just described is the process of migration for plants and trees. You can imagine my level of confusion when I happened upon the new term, ‘ assisted migration ‘. So were they just renaming an old term? Turns out, No. To truly understand this terminology you must believe in climate change and its consequences.

Through industrial activity and tropical deforestation, we have set the planet on a course to warm to temperatures not seen in the past 100,000 years. Earth has seen similar warmings in the distant past but the RATE of these warmings were at a substantially slower rate. For Ontario, warming is projected to be greater in the North than the South.  Precipitation wise, Northwestern Ontario and most of Southern Ontario will see a 10% decline along with an accompanying increase in temperatures. By 2100, we should see our annual temperatures rise by 6C. Overall, at a forest level, soils are going to be drier.

So what has been the immediate impact on our forests and tree species? Basically, as the climate changes, some individual trees or even whole local populations of a species may not prove adaptable to the new conditions, nor have the capacity or time to become adapted. These trees may not be able to migrate to more favorable conditions, given that climate is changing faster than natural migration via wind, water and animals, has occurred in the past. Another negative effect, a barrier to migration, is temperature and other weather extremes affecting flowering and seed production.

When you hard boil all the scientific evidence down, the real problem is the tree migration rate needed. Historically, trees can migrate at less than 10 kilometers per 100 years. With climate change and warming happening even faster than predicted, trees will have to move 150 – 200 kilometers in the next 100 years to ensure continuation of tree species within favorable climatic conditions. Obviously, the evolutionary migration rate of trees cannot keep pace with the anticipated rates.

What to do? The choice seems to be assisted migration. It is the intentional migration or relocation of southern trees species north, by man. It is a planned relocation of species, still within its natural growth range, but at the northern extent of its current habitat. In my next article, we will look at the mechanics and controversy of assisted migration of trees.


We are always researching science literature to discover new methods and ideas to help produce superior adapted trees and plants to survive climate change. I ran across the topic of mycorrhiza and, it turns out, the fungal/root inter relationships are quite intriguing.

Fungi are common throughout the forest ecosystems. Some fungi are common forest mushrooms, puffballs and truffles. Colonization of the area is from wind dispersion of their spores. Other fungi are not wind dispersed, but only found in the soil. Once fungus and plant root meet, a wonderful thing happens – a fungus root. These feet are known as mycorrhiza. These mycorrhiza create a symbiotic relationship between fungus and root.

Benefits to the plant are huge. The mycorrhiza produce growth hormones that stimulate feeder root elongation and branching. By creating more arbuscules in the roots, these growth hormones are, indirectly, protecting roots against pathogens. First, the pathogens have no direct entry to the roots of the plants. The pathogens must pass through these arbuscules, a direct barrier, in order to gain root entry. Next, the arbuscules can produce antibiotics to some root pathogens to discourage entry. Lastly, arbuscules encourage increased plant health and, therefore, more resistance to disease. How?

Mycorrhiza enhance uptake of water and mineral nutrients, especially Phosphorus and Nitrogen. These uptakes from the soil are made possible due to the soil exploration of the hyphae sent out from the colonized root tips. It is estimated that these fungal hyphae can explore hundreds to thousands more volumes of soil than just root tips themselves. The fungi even interact and change the soil environment of the plant by improving the soil structure and quality. The filaments from the fungal hyphae create polysaccharides and protein that bind soils, increase soil porosity and promote aeration and water movement.

Surprisingly, in North America, few nurseries utilize mycorrhiza inoculation for their growing plant stock. It seems the natural thing to do, especially for the forestry industry. With climate change and changing ecosystems, mycorrhizal inoculating trees would produce more hardiness and increase tree survival rates. This year, is our test year at, Puslinch Naturally Native Trees, for mycorrhizal inoculation. We will keep you informed of our results.


2017, was an interesting summer and fall. Initially, it seemed to be a great year for the Monarch butterfly. Numbers from 2016, seemed to indicate a slight upward trend in population. The wet spring and summer led to abundant crops of milkweed.  Approaching the fall of 2017, we all had high expectations for the Monarch. Surely with all this abundant milkweed we should have a large volume of butterflies migrating – – a record? But Mother Nature threw in a twist, the warmest fall in 123 years! Initially I wasn’t worried. Maybe a warm fall would reduce migration fatalities and more Monarchs would arrive in Mexico to roost. Unfortunately, according to Cornell university, ‘ warm falls delay migration and late Monarchs don’t get to Mexico as well as the early Monarchs do. ‘ In fact, the critical date for flying is September 15. Past this date and the butterflies usually do not make it to Mexico.

What was truly fascinating was not just a delay in migration behavior but a delay in diopause. Usually the Monarch switches from a breeding butterfly to a diopause state (non breeding) in order to prepare for fall flight. Muscle mass and fat stores increase with diopause. But what we actually witnessed was an extra generation.

This extra generation had scientists worried. Seeing butterflies so far north so late in the year suggested few of these latecomers would reach Mexican wintering grounds. The blame for the unusually warm fall can be placed squarely upon our shoulders. Climatologists say that climate change is likely behind what they are calling the latest Monarch migration ever recorded in eastern North America.

Scientists will be conducting the Mexico over wintering site counts soon. Some researchers are hoping population numbers will surpass 2015 – 2016 counts due to some of that extra generation actually arriving in Mexico.

So where do we go from here? I’ve rolled up all the suggestions from Cornell and Kansas universities plus the Monarch Joint Venture.

Recommendation : Tropical Milkweed

Though tropical milkweed is not a native milkweed in Ontario, it is part of the natural life cycle of the Monarch butterfly. In the southern states, Florida and California, tropical milkweed grows naturally and the Monarch actually prefers to lay eggs on this milkweed followed by butterfly weed. As you progress further north tropical milkweed vanishes from the landscape since it is not frost resistant. In Ontario, Monarchs prefer to lay eggs on swamp and common milkweed followed by butterfly weed.

So why am I suggesting a non native milkweed? To combat climate change. Springs are becoming more irregular and earlier. Migrating Monarchs will encounter more incidences of having no food available upon arrival in Ontario. With unsure food and variable flight times in a varying climate, this could spell disaster to this fragile population. Tropical milkweed can be overwintered with your houseplants and can be used as an early larval and food plant while our native milkweeds are still dormant.

Recommendation : Expand your milkweed menu

We need to use at least 3 to 4 different types of milkweed. Different milkweeds have different growth cycles and this will ensure that there is always milkweed leaves available for hungry caterpillars. A good trio would be tropical, swamp and common milkweeds.

B) Cause : Pesticides

All pollinators are susceptible to pesticides, not just the Monarch. We have to stop the rate of decline of all pollinators. This is vital for securing our food chain and maintaining our environment.

Recommendation : Be Organic

Become organic in your garden practices and be sure to ask your nursery where you buy your milkweed and garden plants if they are pesticide free. Support legislation to ban neonicitinoids. Support organic farmers and local farmers at your farmers markets.

C) Cause : Climate change

Everyone can reduce their Carbon footprint. Climate change is not just affecting the Monarch but all living things on this Earth. One of the biggest impacts on climate change is to sequester Carbon. Be sure to plant more trees and shrubs. There is lots of information out there on what you can do but, in the end, it is up to you to affect a change and act.